# Famous mathematics – The most famous mathematicians in world history

MATHEMATICS

From the books “Men of Mathematics” and “The Queen of Sciences”:

**Pythagoras (about 569 BC – 500-475 BC)**

Pythagorean theorem

Believed that everything in the world would get to math

**Euclid (about 330 BC – 260 BC)**

Teacher at Museoion, a school established in Alexandria.

Written one of the world’s best known mathematical books, Stoikheia aka Elementa. This work survived in numerous translations as a basic textbook of geometry for more than two millennia

**Platon** **(c. 428/427 BC – 348/347 BC)**

He wrote on numerous philosophical topics and dealt specifically with metaphysics and information theory

Considered one of the whole historian of the influential philosopher

Socrates’ most famous student

**Democritus (about 460 BC – 370 BC)**

She is known as the developer of atomic studies together with Leukippos

**Zeno (ca. 490 BC – 420 BC)**

He is best known for his paradoxes, which he used to try to prove that the concepts of movement, plurality, continuity, and infinity are contradictory.

Aristotle called him the inventor of dialectics

**Eudoxos (ca. 410 BC – 355 BC)**

Introduced the idea of the sphericity of celestial bodies

Significantly contributed to the understanding of planetary motions

He invented the method of exhaustion, which could be used to determine areas and volumes

His work was a precursor to analysis

**Archimedes (c. 287 BC – 212 BC)**

One of the largest ancient Greek scholars

He is known to be the first to count the sums of endless series

In statistics, he explained the equilibrium conditions of the lever

He studied the branch of physics that studies the density and volume of a body

He was among the first to use mathematics to study natural phenomena

**Descartes (1596 – 1650)**

In his dissertation Geometry Descartes developed analytical geometry and paved the way for modern mathematics

His analytical geometry forms a bridge between algebra and geometry

According to Descarte, the rectangular coordinate system is named the Cartesian coordinate system

**Fermat (1601 – 1665)**

Mathematics – Conducted considerable research in the field of analytical geometry and probability calculus

The father of current number theory

Fermat’s small sentence

Fermat’s big sentence

**Pascal (1623 – 1662)**

He developed a mechanical calculator

Solved the surface area and volume of the rotating body

In his final years, he focused on developing the forerunners of integral calculus

He studied the flows of liquids and gases, and clarified the concepts of vacuum and pressure

He developed probability theory

According to him, a unit of pressure in the SI system has been named

**Newton (1642 – 1726)**

Layed the foundations for classical mechanics

He is considered the inventor of differential and integral calculus

He is also considered a developer of modern optics

He created an empirical law of cooling, as well as studied the speed of sound

In his work he presented three axioms known today as the basic laws of mechanics, i.e. Newton’s laws.

**Leibniz (1646 – 1716)**

Mathematics – In his name is placed the mathematical term function

He is considered the father of modern analysis along with Isaac Newton

Developed in particular integral and profit rule

His writings consist of many thousands of letters and writings, so there is nowhere near a complete picture of his accomplishments.

He studied differential calculus at the same time as Isaac Newton. Leibniz was the first to publish his method, and the idea of a father arose a fierce quarrel

Built the first usable mechanical calculator capable of multiplication and division

**Bernoulli (1654 – 1705)**

Be the first to introduce the principle of mathematically precise design, now known as the law of large numbers

Bernoulli’s figures are named after Jakob Bernoulli

**Euler (1707 – 1783)**

He is considered one of the greatest mathematicians of all time

Used the first concept of function

Started researching the basics of network theory and variance calculus

From him come many of the notations currently in use, including the notation of sum, silicon, and imaginary unit.

He was completely blind but still produced about a quarter, even a third, of the writings of physics, mathematics, mechanics, astronomy, and navigation at that time.

According to him, a mathematical formula related to complex analysis, i.e. the Euler formula, has been named

One of his best-known works is the so-called Euler Identities, which has been called the most beautiful formula in mathematics.

**Laplace (1749 – 1827)**

Conducted fundamental research in planetary system and probability theory

Presented the theory of the birth of the solar system

He is also known as a developer of differential calculus theories

He developed the Laplace transform as well as the Laplace equation

**Lebesgue (1875 – 1941)**

He is known for the integral concept he developed, the Lebesgue integral

**Monge (1746 – 1818)**

He is known as the inventor of descriptive geometry

He was active in the face of the Great French Revolution and served as Minister of the Navy from 1792 to 1793

**Poncelet (1788 – 1867)**

In 1822 he published his most famous work, a systematic presentation of projective geometry

**Gauss (1777 – 1855)**

The most important mathematician of his time and he has been given the nickname Prince of Mathematicians

Presented, among other things, the least squares method, and proved the algebraic theorem and the basic theorem of arithmetic

**Cauchy (1789 – 1857)**

Gave the first accurate proofs of the results of the analysis and also invented several new results of function theory

He was the first to study permutation groups

His writings deal with all aspects of mathematics and mathematical physics at that time

**Lobachevsky (1792 – 1856)**

The greatest achievement was the development of non-Euclidean geometry

Developed geometry in which the Fifth Postulate of Euclidean Geometry is not true

**Abel (1802 – 1829)**

Prove that the equations of the fifth and higher degrees cannot be solved in general algebraically

Invented and proved Abel’s summation statement

the theory of elliptic functions is almost entirely built by him

In honor of Abel, the Abel Prize was established in 2002, which is the most prestigious prize in the field of science

His statue is in Oslo

**Jacobi (1804 – 1851)**

Developed Jacob’s theta function

His contribution to the theory of differential equations has been significant

According to him, one of the craters of the Moon has been named

**Hamilton (1805 – 1865)**

Continued the work of Isaac Newton

Published in the 1830s Hamilton’s formalism, which became a central mathematical-dynamic construction of classical physics. This work has been applied in theories of thermodynamics as well as electromagnetism

**Galois (1811 – 1832)**

Did not receive recognition as a mathematician during his lifetime

Today, he is considered particularly talented

The sufficient and necessary conditions invented by Galois for the solution of a polynomial equation to be represented by a juuer revolutionized mathematics.

His research in algebra laid the foundation for modern group theory

Galois’s group, as well as Galois’s theory, are named after him

**Sylvester (1814 – 1897)**

Significantly contributed to the development of matrix computation, number theory, and combinatorics

He assumed the Sylvester-Gallai theorem, which Tibor Gallai later testified

Sylvester constructs the first examples of the Hadamard matrix

**Cayley (1821 – 1895)**

Wrote over 300 mathematical articles

Collaborated with James Joseph Sylvester

Cayley’s theorem is named after Arthur Cayley

Cayley was the first to use modern groups. Before him, mathematicians did not use the modern definition of a group

**Weierstrass (1815 – 1897)**

Significantly contributed to the emergence of modern analysis

He proved the intermediate theorem for continuous functions, as well as the Bolzano-Weierstrass theorem

Invented the M-test

Contributed to the development of variance accounting

**Boole (1815 – 1864)**

Boolean algebra is named after him

He is considered one of the founders of computer science

**Hermite (1822 – 1901)**

He was the first to use matrices

In his honor, several mathematical concepts are referred to as hermetic

Proved first that, Neper’s number e, the base of natural logarithms, is transcendent

**Kronecker (1823- 1891)**

Kronecker symbol

Kronecker Delta

Opposed the use of irrational figures

**Rieman (1826 – 1866)**

Made an important contribution to the fields of analysis and differential geometry

The Riemann integral, the Riemann manifold, the Cauchyn-Riemann equation, and the Riemann zeta function bear his name

Riemann surface

**Kummer (1810 – 1893)**

Kummer’s test

Promoted several mathematical fields

**Dedekind (1831 – 1916)**

Eeta function of decedin

Dedekind surgery

Worked in the areas of abstract algebra, algebraic number theory, and the basics of real numbers

**Poincaré (1854 – 1912)**

He was a pioneer of topology and a promoter of number theory

Poincaré’s assumption

**Cantor (1845 – 1918)**

The creator of mass doctrine

Cantorin-Schröder-Bernstein theorem

Cantor’s set

Cantor’s diagonal argument

**John von Neumann (1903 – 1957)**

Developed quantum mechanics, set theory, computer science, and economics

Participate in the Manhattan project

One of the fathers of modern information technology

Developed the world’s first electronic computer, ENIAC

**John Nash (1928 – 2015)**

Developed economic game theory for multiplayer games

He has been made into a film based on a book published in 1998

Received the Nobel Prize in Economics for research in game theory in 1994

Suffering from paranoid schizophrenia and depression

Died in a car accident

Article source: http://matikkatarinat.fi/tarinat/kuuluisia-matemaatikoita/

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